Business Ethics: Universalism versus Relativism

Universalism VS Particularism   Ruled Based Behaviour VS Relationship Behaviour Germanic Countries VS Asian Countries Individualism VS Collectivism Individual’s rights are supreme VS Group’s rights are supreme Western Countries VS Asian Countries Neutral VS Active Emotions are subdued and expressed indirectly VS Emotion are expressed freely and directly Asian Countries VS Western Countries Diffuse VS […]

Motivation Factors, Hygiene Factors. How To Get The Best Out of Your People

Explanation of Two Factor Theory According to the Two Factor Theory of Frederick Herzberg people are influenced by two factors. Satisfaction and psychological growth are a result factor of motivation factors. Dissatisfaction was a result of hygiene factors. Herzberg developed this motivation theory during his investigation of 200 accountants and engineers in the USA. The […]


MANAGING ORGANlSATlONAL CULTURE: FANTASY OR REALITY? Emmanuel Ogbonna, Cardiff Business School  IS CULTURE MANAGEABLE? Before proceeding to examine the literature on managing culture, it is useful to briefly define the concept and its major constituents. There is no consensus on the definition of culture. Indeed, it has been noted that in organisation theory, there are […]

Work Group – Benefits and Pitfalls

In a provocative article titled “Suppose we took groups seriously.” Leavitt (1975) raises the possibility that it might be better to design and manage organizations using groups rather than individuals as the basic building blocks. Among the advantages Leavitt sees as possible from such an approach are the following: — Groups seem to be good […]


‘The unique characteristic of the organization was that it was not simply a race track within which individuals could compete, but a system in which somehow the competitive behaviour of individuals could be coordinated, harnessed, controlled in the interest of the common tasks.’ (Leavitt) Find out more: Leavitt, H. J. (1974) ‘Suppose we took groups […]

Co-Evolution & Strategy

Co-Evolution & Strategy Reflecting on the concept of co-evolution helps me think through what sort of co-evolution may be encouraged or in fact is now already reshaping the way we interact, think and operate. Maruyama (1964) as completed by McKelvey (2002) mentioned 5 kinds of evolution. 1. ‘Coevolution between mutation rate and the environment’ (Mckelvey, […]

Positioning – Kembali ke Dasar

Positioning – Kembali ke Dasar Positioning adalah metode dalam marketing untuk membentuk persepsi suatu produk, merk, atau identitas perusahaan. Di mulai dari Jack Trout dan Al Ries, sebuah konsep dasar dalam komunikasi yang mereka sebut sebagai Positioning hadir dan terus berkembang. Kini semua marketer paling tidak sudah pernah mendengar pentingnya memposisikan manfaat keseluruhan: atribut produk […]

Wisdom From Alice In Wonderland

When you read Alice in Wonderland, you will find yourself trying to make sense of an illogical story. Alice, the key character, also experiences similar frustrations. But in the end, she emerges wiser with the learning involved in each situation. Everyone faces absurd choices in life. If you shrug off these choices as anomalies to […]

Requisite Organisation

Requisite organisation forms the basis for organisation and work design, leadership strategy and talent and Human Resource Management practices. Requisite Organization is the term created by Elliott Jaques to refer to the only total system approach to the effective management of work, including structure, leadership processes and human resources. The concepts and practices embedded in […]

Balance Score Card – Concept, Benefits and Limitation

Benefits of the Balanced Scorecard Kaplan and Norton cite the following benefits of the usage of the Balanced Scorecard: •Focusing the whole organization on the few key things needed to create breakthrough performance. •Helps to integrate various corporate programs. Such as: quality, re-engineering, and customer service initiatives. •Breaking down strategic measures towards lower levels, so […]