David G. Bowers and Stanley E. Seashore
Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell University
1. Differentiation of supervisory role. Behaviour by a leader that reflects greater emphasis upon activities of planning and performing specialized skilled tasks; spending a greater proportion of time in actual supervision, rather than performing the men’s own tasks himself or absorption in impersonal paperwork.
2. Closeness of supervision. Behaviour that delegates authority, checks upon subordinates less frequently, provides more general, less frequent instructions about the work, makes greater allowance for individuals to perform in their own ways and at their own paces.
3. Employee orientation. Behaviour that gives major emphasis to a supportive personal relationship, and that reflects a personal interest in subordinates; being more understanding, less punitive, easy to talk to, and willing to help groom employees for advancement.
4. Group relationships. Behaviour by the leader that results in group cohesiveness, pride by subordinates in their work group, a feeling of membership in the group, and mutual help on the part of those subordinates.