Explanation of Two Factor Theory
According to the Two Factor Theory of Frederick Herzberg people are influenced by two factors. Satisfaction and psychological growth are a result factor of motivation factors. Dissatisfaction was a result of hygiene factors. Herzberg developed this motivation theory during his investigation of 200 accountants and engineers in the USA.
The two Factors in Theory
Hygiene factors are needed to ensure that an employee does not become dissatisfied. They do not cause higher levels of motivation, but without them there is dissatisfaction.
Motivation factors are needed in order to motivate an employee into higher performance. These factors result from internal generators in employees.
Typical Hygiene Factors
Quality of supervision
Company policies and administration
Typical Motivation Factors
Timely recognition for achievement
Responsibility for task
Advancement to higher level tasks, responsibilities, status and position
Growth and Clearly Defined Career Progression
Combining the hygiene and motivation factors results in four scenarios
High Hygiene + High Motivation: The ideal situation where employees are highly motivated and have few complaints.
High Hygiene + Low Motivation: Employees have few complaints but are not highly motivated. The job is perceived as a paycheck.
Low Hygiene + High Motivation: Employees are motivated but have a lot of complaints. A situation where the job is neither exciting nor challenging, but the salaries and work conditions are not OK.
Low Hygiene + Low Motivation: The worst situation. Employees are not motivated and have lots of complaints.