Motivation Factors, Hygiene Factors. How To Get The Best Out of Your People

Explanation of Two Factor Theory

According to the Two Factor Theory of Frederick Herzberg people are influenced by two factors. Satisfaction and psychological growth are a result factor of motivation factors. Dissatisfaction was a result of hygiene factors. Herzberg developed this motivation theory during his investigation of 200 accountants and engineers in the USA.

The two Factors in Theory

Hygiene factors are needed to ensure that an employee does not become dissatisfied. They do not cause higher levels of motivation, but without them there is dissatisfaction.

Motivation factors are needed in order to motivate an employee into higher performance. These factors result from internal generators in employees.

Typical Hygiene Factors

Working conditions

Quality of supervision






Company policies and administration

Interpersonal relations


Typical Motivation Factors


Timely recognition for achievement

Responsibility for task


Interesting job

Advancement to higher level tasks, responsibilities, status and position

Growth and Clearly Defined Career Progression

Combining the hygiene and motivation factors results in four scenarios

High Hygiene + High Motivation: The ideal situation where employees are highly motivated and have few complaints.

High Hygiene + Low Motivation: Employees have few complaints but are not highly motivated. The job is perceived as a paycheck.

Low Hygiene + High Motivation: Employees are motivated but have a lot of complaints. A situation where the job is neither exciting nor challenging, but the salaries and work conditions are not OK.

Low Hygiene + Low Motivation: The worst situation. Employees are not motivated and have lots of complaints.



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